Situational Awareness and Spatial Disorientation
Pilots have been susceptible to loss of Situational Awareness (SA) and Spatial Disorientation (SD) since the beginning of aviation. Losses due to SA and SD continue to occur in the highly dynamic flight environment because pilots fail to correctly sense their position, motion or attitude of the aircraft relative to the surface of the Earth. Our SA/SD course provides aviation professionals cognitive and psychomotor skill sets to recognize and recover from a loss of Situational Awareness or Spatial Disorientation.
Using the NASTAR Center’s unique training simulators, aviators gain the experience and confidence needed to recognize critical human limits.

  • Defining Situational Awareness (SA) and Spatial Disorientation (SD)
  • Factors affecting SA
  • SA and SD factors that lead to Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT)
  • Human perception limits and their impact in aviation
  • Human factor errors due to the loss of SA and/or SD
  • Spatial Disorientation – visual illusions
  • Spatial Disorientation – vestibular illusions
  • Strategies to prevent the loss of SA or SD


  • Trainees are expected to be in good health and capable of taking part in all activities/li>



  • Visual SD Illusions
  • Vestibular SD Illusions